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  1. It would seem that you do not have 'nuget' installed in your command line environment on your build agent. On a Mac with Xamrin, the 'nuget' command is in the Mono framework. I have to assume you have the Mono framework installed, but if not install it.
  2. Mar 28, 2019  Troubleshooting on Windows, Linux, and OSX. Jump to bottom. Build and install from command-line. If you have Visual Studio installed, run Developer Command Prompt for VS as it has all the development paths set up. Install pythonnet 2.3.0 on mac #525; Can't install pythonnet with Mono 5.

Looking to install a package? See Ways to install NuGet packages.

To work with NuGet, as a package consumer or creator, you can use command-line interface (CLI) tools as well as NuGet features in Visual Studio. This article briefly outlines the capabilities of the different tools, how to install them, and their comparative feature availability. To get started using NuGet to consume packages, see Install and use a package (dotnet CLI) and Install and use a package (Visual Studio). To get started creating NuGet packages, see Create and publish a NET Standard package (dotnet CLI) and Create and publish a NET Standard package (Visual Studio).

Tool DescriptionDownload
dotnet.exeCLI tool for .NET Core and .NET Standard libraries, and for any SDK-style project such as one that targets .NET Framework. Included with the .NET Core SDK and provides core NuGet features on all platforms. (Starting in Visual Studio 2017, the dotnet CLI is automatically installed with any .NET Core related workloads.).NET Core SDK
nuget.exeCLI tool for .NET Framework libraries and for any non-SDK-style project such as one that targets .NET Standard libraries. Provides all NuGet capabilities on Windows, provides most features on Mac and Linux when running under Mono.nuget.exe
Visual StudioOn Windows, the NuGet Package Manager is included with Visual Studio 2012 and later. Visual Studio provides the Package Manager UI and the Package Manager Console, through which you can run most NuGet operations.Visual Studio
Visual Studio for MacOn Mac, certain NuGet capabilities are built-in directly. Package Manager Console is not presently available. For other capabilities, use the dotnet.exe or nuget.exe CLI tools.Visual Studio for Mac
Visual Studio CodeOn Windows, Mac, or Linux, NuGet capabilities are available through marketplace extensions, or use the dotnet.exe or nuget.exe CLI tools.Visual Studio Code

The MSBuild CLI also provides the ability to restore and create packages, which is primarily useful on build servers. MSBuild is not a general-purpose tool for working with NuGet.

Package Manager Console commands work only within Visual Studio on Windows and do not work within other PowerShell environments.

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Visual Studio

Install on Visual Studio 2017 and newer

Starting in Visual Studio 2017, the installer includes the NuGet Package Manager with any workload that employs .NET. To install separately, or to verify that the Package Manager is installed, run the Visual Studio installer and check the option under Individual Components > Code tools > NuGet package manager.

Install on Visual Studio 2015 and older

NuGet Extensions for Visual Studio 2013 and 2015 can be downloaded from

For Visual Studio 2010 and earlier, install the 'NuGet Package Manager for Visual Studio' extension. Note, if you can't see the extension in the first page of search results, try changing the Sort By dropdown to 'Most Downloads', or an alphabetical sort.

CLI tools

You can use either the dotnet CLI or the nuget.exe CLI to support NuGet features in the IDE. The dotnet CLI is installed with some Visual Studio workloads, such as .NET Core. The nuget.exe CLI must be installed separately as described earlier.

The two NuGet CLI tools are dotnet.exe and nuget.exe. See feature availability for a comparison.

  • To target .NET Core or .NET Standard, use the dotnet CLI. The dotnet CLI is required for the SDK-style project format, which uses the SDK attribute.
  • To target .NET Framework (non-SDK-style project only), use the nuget.exe CLI. If the project is migrated from packages.config to PackageReference, use the dotnet CLI.

dotnet.exe CLI

The .NET Core 2.0 CLI, dotnet.exe, works on all platforms (Windows, Mac, and Linux) and provides core NuGet features such as installing, restoring, and publishing packages. dotnet provides direct integration with .NET Core project files (such as .csproj), which is helpful in most scenarios. dotnet is also built directly for each platform and does not require you to install Mono.


  • On developer computers, install the .NET Core SDK. Starting in Visual Studio 2017, the dotnet CLI is automatically installed with any .NET Core related workloads.
  • For build servers, follow the instructions on Using .NET Core SDK and tools in Continuous Integration.

To learn how to use basic commands with the dotnet CLI, see Install and use packages using the dotnet CLI.

nuget.exe CLI

The nuget.exe CLI, nuget.exe, is the command-line utility for Windows that provides all NuGet capabilities; it can also be run on Mac OSX and Linux using Mono with some limitations.

To learn how to use basic commands with the nuget.exe CLI, see Install and use packages using the nuget.exe CLI.




NuGet.exe 5.0 and later require .NET Framework 4.7.2 or later to execute.

  1. Visit and select NuGet 3.3 or higher (2.8.6 is not compatible with Mono). The latest version is always recommended, and 4.1.0+ is required to publish packages to
  2. Each download is the nuget.exe file directly. Instruct your browser to save the file to a folder of your choice. The file is not an installer; you won't see anything if you run it directly from the browser.
  3. Add the folder where you placed nuget.exe to your PATH environment variable to use the CLI tool from anywhere.


Behaviors may vary slightly by OS distribution.

  1. Install Mono 4.4.2 or later.

  2. Execute the following command at a shell prompt:

  3. Create an alias by adding the following script to the appropriate file for your OS (typically ~/.bash_aliases or ~/.bash_profile):

  4. Reload the shell. Test the installation by entering nuget with no parameters. NuGet CLI help should display.


Use nuget update -self on Windows to update an existing nuget.exe to the latest version.


The latest recommended NuGet CLI is always available at For compatibility purposes with older continuous integration systems, a previous URL, currently provides the deprecated 2.8.6 CLI tool.

Feature availability

Featuredotnet CLInuget CLI (Windows)nuget CLI (Mono)Visual Studio (Windows)Visual Studio for Mac
Search packages
Install/uninstall packages✔(1)
Update packages
Restore packages✔(2)
Manage package feeds (sources)
Manage packages on a feed
Set API keys for feeds
Create packages(3)✔(4)
Publish packages
Replicate packages
Manage global-package and cache folders
Manage NuGet configuration

(1) Does not affect project files; use dotnet.exe instead.

(2) Works only with packages.config file and not with solution (.sln) files.

(3) Various advanced package features are available through the CLI only as they aren't represented in the Visual Studio UI tools.

(4) Works with .nuspec files but not with project files.

Upcoming Features

If you'd like to preview upcoming NuGet features, install a Visual Studio Preview, which works side-by-side with stable releases of Visual Studio. To report problems or share ideas for previews, open an issue on the NuGet GitHub repository.

Related topics

Developers working on Windows can also explore the NuGet Package Explorer, an open-source, stand-alone tool to visually explore, create, and edit NuGet packages. It's very helpful, for example, to make experimental changes to a package structure without rebuilding the package.

Welcome to the pythonnet troubleshooting wiki on Windows, Linux, and OSX!

If you get errors first things to check

Pythonnet consists of 2 DLLs: clr.pyd ( or clr.dylib on Linux and OSX) and Python.Runtime.dll, first DLL is used to embed .NET in CPython with import clr statement and second DLL is used to embed CPython in .NET.


pip install pythonnet [--pre] -U (--pre gets the latest development build uploaded to PyPI)

Built from master branch on github

Note that you need to have pip, wheel, setuptools installed. Also Windows SDK or Visual Studio (at least free version) need to be installed, since build process locates and uses msbuild.exe and mt.exe.

RGiesecke.DllExport from Unmanaged Exports does not support non-English ILdasm generated IL file. You can inspect RGiesecke.DllExport with ILSPY to fix it. Find and change '// Code' to you system language it in RGiesecke.DllExport.Parsing.Actions.DeleteExportAttributeParserAction.Execute:

Alternative solution is just to change system language to English before building clrmodule project.

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1. Build in Visual Studio

The correct set of compilation symbols are selected with UCS2 (UCS4 for Mono), x86 or x64 build of CPython and Python version flag (PYTHON2..PYTHON3, PYTHON27..PYTHON36). Visual Studio provides Release/Debug, Mono/Windows, Python 2/3, x86/x64 configurations from solution, but PYTHON34..PYTHON36 flags need to be set manually in the properties of the projects Python.Runtime.csproj and clrmodule.csproj.

Copy clr.pyd and Python.Runtime.DLL to PYTHONFOLDERLibsite-packages or include their location path to search paths

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2. Build and install from command-line

If you have Visual Studio installed, run Developer Command Prompt for VS as it has all the development paths set up. Otherwise you may experience RuntimeError: mt.exe could not be found when trying to install via pip.

If GIT is installed, execute:pip install git+ -U --force

Note that due to this issue --egg option is required temporarily:

or from local pythonnet source directory:python.exe bdist_wheelat runtime or with environment variables.

And install this wheel:

pip install --no-index --find-links=.dist pythonnet

Note that pip install wheel is requirement for building wheels.

To install on Linux some dependencies are required such as:

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  • Mono-complete or Mono-devel (, at least version 4.8
  • clang (sudo apt-get install clang)
  • glib (sudo apt-get install libglib2.0-dev)
  • python-dev

Installed CPython is reachable by %PATH% or %PYTHONHOME% environment variables.

Pythonnet relies DLR and Hashset only added since CLR 4.0.

No left-over pythonnet assemblies in CPython folders (such as site-packages) or in GAC for CLR 2/4.

Make sure that all 3 WinForms demos are showing without errors:


nPython.exe shows an example of embedding CPython runtime in C# application using pythonnet.

Make sure that all Python tests are passing locally by running these commands:pip install pytestpython -m pytest.

Note that Python.Test.dll needs to be copied to PYTHONFOLDERLibsite-packages.

You can also run NUnit tests for embedding CPython in .NET using Python.EmbeddingTest.dll.

clr.AddReference('Assembly_Name') works by looking at 'Assembly_Name' without '.DLL'

Add path of .NET assembly 'Assembly_Name' to sys.path before using it from Python.

import Namespace_In_CLR works by importing the .NET namespace 'Namespace_In_CLR' in assembly 'Assembly_Name', which can be different!

System.BadImageFormatException: 'Could not load file or assembly 'Python.Runtime...' - mismatch of architecture (x86, x64) between Python and .NET.

'Unable to load DLL pythonXX': CPython is not installed, or not registered in %PATH% and %PYTHONHOME% environment variables. Alternatively set PythonEngine.PythonHome property before initializing Python runtime. More details in these issues:

  • Report wrong result or exception and traceback

  • Report minimal reproducible exception or wrong result

  • The versions and x86/x64 architecture of your Python, .NET/Mono, and OS.

When using .NET DLLs from pythonnet, analyze assembly binding errors using fuslogvw.exe.

When not sure about namespaces in the DLL, then use ILSPY for this purpose.

Check stackoverflow, mailing list archive, and past github issues:

Please review these issues with common pitfalls on Mac OSX:

There are currently (2017-11-20) two options for installing mono on OSX:

  1. Xamarin Latest Mono Mac Package which can also be install using Homebrew-Cask, just search for mono-mdk, or read the Caskroom docs

Installation instructions for Homebrew mono formula:

  • brew install pkg-config
  • brew install glib --universal
  • brew install mono
  • Set PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/Library/Frameworks/Mono.framework/Versions/?.?.?/lib/pkgconfig
  • Manually add a symbolic link to the respective mono folder:/usr/local/your_python_path_here/lib

└─ $ ln -s /Library/Frameworks/Mono.framework/Versions/Current/lib/mono

  • export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH=/Library/Frameworks/Mono.framework/Versions/Current/lib
  • USE_OSX_FRAMEWORKS=0 ARCHFLAGS='-arch x86_64' pip install git+

Installation instructions for Homebrew-Cask mono-mdk:

You may need to tap the caskroom first.

To build PythonNET for High Sierra, the latest master branch of PythonNet is required.

Find where mono-2.pc is on your Mac.

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Use the location of mono-2.pc to replace {mono version} to build the Python wheel.

Install the {pythonnet version} for your {cpython version} and {mac version} found in the dist folder:

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Note: The --user option is only required if installing into OSX system Python. Omit if using virtual or conda environment!